Glaucoma

AKB-9778 in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

Unmet medical need:

POAG is a leading cause of blindness affecting approximately 64.3 million people worldwide in 2013 with an expected increase to 76.0 million in 2020 and 118.0 million by 2040. POAG is characterized by optic nerve and neuroretina anomalies and progressive visual field defects. Elevated intraocular pressure, or IOP, is the primary modifiable risk factor and reducing IOP is the only clinical approach shown to slow or prevent vision loss. Despite the availability of effective IOP lowering drugs, many patients require multiple agents to control IOP that together often fail to achieve target IOP. The conventional outflow pathway, consisting of the trabecular meshwork and a specialized vessel called Schlemm’s canal, controls IOP and has been identified as the site of increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow in POAG. Importantly, most current POAG therapies do not target conventional outflow, and reduce IOP by either decreasing the formation of aqueous humor or facilitating non-conventional outflow pathways. The failure of most current therapies to modify conventional outflow has been hypothesized to contribute to continued deterioration of conventional outflow and progressive increases in IOP over time. We believe that developing agents that target conventional outflow pathology directly will likely have improved therapeutic potential alone or in combination with approved glaucoma agents and may prevent progression of POAG that often occurs despite current therapy. 

Emerging role of the Tie2 Pathway in the maintenance of conventional outflow:

Recently, two independent groups have shown that Tie2 is expressed and activated in Schlemm’s canal endothelial cells during development and in the mature vessel. Disruption of the Tie2 pathway in mice by conditional knockout early in postnatal development results in failure of the formation of Schlemm’s canal, associated with increased IOP and with retinal and optic nerve pathology resembling human congenital glaucoma. Tie2 pathway disruption later in postnatal development results in degeneration of Schlemm’s canal with development of increased IOP and retinal and optic pathology reminiscent of POAG. Tie2 is most highly expressed in mature Schlemm’s canal inner wall endothelium and disruption of the Tie2 pathway results in increased cell death, or apoptosis, and reduced formation of giant vacuoles consistent with compromised conventional outflow. Supporting these preclinical findings, Tie2 loss of function variants were identified in 10 of 189 unrelated primary congenital glaucoma families, and SNPs in the Ang-1 promoter region were significantly associated with the risk of POAG. We believe that these preclinical findings along with human genetic evidence provides a sound scientific premise that activation of the Tie2 pathway in Schlemm’s canal could provide a novel conventional outflow-targeted POAG therapy.

Role of VE-PTP in Signaling Pathways and Relevance to Glaucoma

Aerpio has developed first-in-class, potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of the catalytic domain of VE-PTP. In vascular endothelial cells, AKB-9778, Aerpio’s lead VE-PTP inhibitor, activates Tie2 and triggers signaling pathways downstream of Tie2 that have been implicated in modulation of conventional outflow facility. These include endothelial nitric oxide synthase, or eNOS, activation and Rho pathway inhibition via Rac1.

Figure 1. VE-PTP inhibition as a novel conventional outflow targeted approach for glaucoma treatment.

Activation of Tie2, with AKB-9778, affects pathways commonly associated with reduction of intraocular pressure. Rhopressa and Vyzulta are recently approved glaucoma drugs which block the Rho pathway and stimulate the eNOS pathway, respectively. Inhibition of VE-PTP should provide both benefits, blocking Rho and stimulating eNOS.

Evidence Supporting Tie2 Activation as a Conventional Outflow Glaucoma Target:

In a completed Phase 2a clinical trial, patients receiving subcutaneous AKB-9778 demonstrated a statistically significant reduction from baseline in IOP compared to those receiving subcutaneous placebo injections. These IOP reductions were detected in individuals with normal ocular pressure in a study not designed to measure IOP changes and were of the same magnitude as reductions seen in individuals with normal ocular pressure on oral β-blocker therapy.

Figure 2. Subcutaneous administration of AKB-9778 significantly reduces IOP in patients with normal ocular pressure.

 

Preclinical Data Supporting Topical Ocular Delivery of AKB-9778:

Based on preliminary clinical proof-of-concept by subcutaneous administration of AKB-9778, Aerpio is advancing a topical ocular program for AKB-9778 as a conventional outflow-targeted approach to the treatment of patients with POAG or ocular hypertension. AKB-9778 is soluble in aqueous solution and preliminary topical ocular studies in rabbits have demonstrated good tolerability, superior aqueous humor exposure and IOP lowering compared to subcutaneous administration. The AKB-9778 topical formulation was well tolerated, and exposure was demonstrated in the aqueous humor following two days of three times a day 30 μL topical ocular administration to both eyes of New Zealand White rabbits. These data suggest that a topical ocular formulation of AKB-9778 may be sufficient to deliver AKB-9778 to target ocular tissues with acceptable tolerability.

The AKB-9778 topical ocular formulation was also well tolerated following seven days of once daily, or QD, and twice daily, or BID, 30 μL topical ocular administration to both eyes in New Zealand White Rabbits with normal ocular pressure and demonstrated a dose-dependent and statistically significant reduction in IOP of both QD and BID topical ocular dosing at the highest dose level, as shown in the figure below. Reduction in IOP persisted for at least 24 hours following the last dosing period and the treatment was well-tolerated.

Figure 3. IOP effects of topical ocular compared to subcutaneous AKB-9778 in male rabbits. High dose topical ocular (40 mg/ml) AKB-9778 administered either QD or BID reduced IOP more than low dose topical (15 mg/ml) or subcutaneous (10 mg/kg) administration BID (Day 7). IOP effects persisted 24 hours post dose (Day 8).

We plan to initiate a Phase 1b study to evaluate the potential of topical AKB-9778 to lower IOP in the first half of 2019, with top-line results expected to be available by the fourth quarter of 2019.